A Comparative Study of Authors' Right and Copyright in Civil Law and Common Law Legal Systems with a view at Iranian Law

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Department of Private Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 MA. in Private Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

“Intellectual Property Rights” is the privilege granted to the author by copyright regulations. The purpose of this privilege is to protect the creators’ relationship with their works and allow them to benefit from the outcome of their efforts both tangibly (economically) and intangibly (ethically). By the same token, the aim behind these rights is also to protect the personality, time, effort, and creativity of the creator. The status of such rights in the two legal systems “Civil Law” and “Common Law” is different and has been identified under the title “Authors’ Rights” and “Copyright”, respectively. One of the common problems in most scientific societies is the lack of distinction between the two and assuming them to be the same. While explaining the legal systems of Authors’ Rights and Copyright, this research work - by examining the theories and regulations of the countries subject to the Civil Law and Common Law legal systems - shows that although these systems have similarities in some matters, they differ from each other in essence. The intellectual approach to the Authors’ Rights emphasizes the strengthening of “Private Property” while Copyright focuses on “Public Property and Interest”. Both Authors’ Rights and Copyright systems have been developed to support creators and publishers, but in this case, the Copyright System has failed to satisfy its addressees due to certain obvious weaknesses. The Authors’ Rights System is, however, more efficient and covers various aspects of the rights of its users, and as a result, there has been a tendency in many countries with Copyright Systems to turn to the Authors’ Right System.

Keywords


اندرز، داوود، احمدزاده، ابوالفضل و زهرا اکبریان (1397). «آثار مورد حمایت در پیش‌نویس لایحة حمایت از حقوق ادبی و هنری ایران و کنوانسیون برن»، مجلة مطالعات حقوقی دانشگاه شیراز، دورة دهم، شمارة اول، ص 1ـ36.
حسن پور، محمد مهدی (1384). «حقوق پدیدآورنده برنامه رایانه‌ای مطالعه تطبیقی»، مجلة حقوقـی دادگستری، شمارة 50 و 51، ص 347ـ382.
زرکلام، ستار (1393). حقوق مالکیت ادبی و هنری، چاپ سوم، تهران: سمت.
السنهوری، عبدالرزاق (بی‌تا). الوسیط فی شرح القانون المدنی الجدید، قاهره: دارالنهضة العربیه.
صادقی، محمود و منصور خاکپور (1386). «موجبات اعطای مجوز اجباری بهره‌برداری از حقوق مالکیت فکری»، پژوهش‌های حقوق تطبیقی، دورة 11، شمارة 4، ص 132ـ162.
صفایی، سیدحسین (1394). اشخاص و اموال، چاپ بیستم، تهران: انتشارات میزان.
عباسی، اسماعیل و مهدی نوده (1393). «بیع اموال فکری»، تحقیقات حقوقی آزاد، شمارة 23، 2.
کاتوزیان، ناصر (1393). اموال و مالکیت، چاپ چهل و‌سوم، تهران: انتشارات میزان.
کاتوزیان، ناصر (1396). قواعد عمومی قراردادها، جلد دوم، تهران: انتشارات گنج دانش.
گرباود (1380). الفبای حقوق پدیدآورنده (کپی رایت)، ترجمة غلامرضا لایقی، تهران: خانة کتاب.
Abbott, Frederick M., Cottier, Thomas & Francis Gurry (2019). International Intellectual Property in an Integrated World Economy, New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Angelopoulos, Christina (2012). “The myth of european term harmonisation: 27 Public domains for the 27 member states”, International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Vol 43, No 5, pp. 567-594.
Aufderheide, Patricia & Peter Jaszi (2011). Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Baldwin, Peter (2016). The Copyright Wars: Three Centuries of Trans-Atlantic Battle, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Barros, Alistair, Daniel Oberle (2012). Handbook of Service Description: USDL and Its Methods, New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Bryer, Lanning & Melvin Seminsky (2001). Intellectual Property Assets in Mergers and Acquisitions, Hoboken: Wiley.
Caddick, Nicholas & Gwilym Harbottle (2019). Copinger & Skone James on Copyright, Vol 1, London: Sweet & Maxwell.
Council of the European Union (2000). “WIPO copyright treaty and the WIPO Performances and phonograms treaty (2000/278/EC)”, Official Journal of the European Communities, L089 of 2000-04-11.
Du Bois, Mikhalien (2018). “Justificatory theories for intellectual property viewed through the constitutional prism”, Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, Volume 21, pp. 1-38.
Elprocus, n.pn (2021). "Different Types of Integrated Circuits | IC Types," Available at https://www.elprocus.com/different-types-of-integrated-circuits retrieved on February 12, 2021.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Fisher, William Weston (2021). "Copyright", Available at https://www.britannica.com/topic/copyright retrieved on February 12, 2021.
EUIPO, n.pn (2020). “How did these 15 Questions Come About?”, Available at https://euipo.europa.eu/ohimportal/en/web/observatory/faqs-on-copyright-hu#1 retrieved on February 12, 2021.
Françon, André (1991). “Authors’ rights beyond frontiers: A comparison of civil law and common law conceptions”, Revue Internationale du Droit d’auteur (RIDA), 149-D2, pp. 16-26.
Gendreau, Ysolde (1994). The Criterion of Fixation in Copyright Law, Association frandcaise pour la diffusion du droit d’auteur national et international.
Gendreau, Ysolde (2009). An Emerging Intellectual Property Paradigm: Perspectives from Canada, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Ginsburg, Jane C. (2003). “The concept of authorship in comparative copyright law”, DePaul Law Review, Vol 52, pp. 1063-1092.
Ginsburg, Jane C. (2006). “‘Une chose publique’? The author’s domain and the public domain in early british, french and US copyright law”, Cambridge Law Journal, Vol 65, pp. 1-31.
Hoppe-Jänisch, Daniel (2015). IP Assignment Clauses in International Employment Contracts, London: Lexology.
Jenkins, Neil & Georgina Straughan (2020). “The relevance of compulsory licensing in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic: Patent laws and regulations 2021”, Available at https://iclg.com/practice-areas/patents-laws-and-regulations/1-the-relevance-of-compulsory-licensing-in-the-fight-against-the-covid-19-pandemic retrieved on February 12, 2021.
Kastenl’tieier (1976). Copyright Law Revision, House of Representatives, Report 94-1476.
Langworthy, Elisabeth A. (2004). “Analysis of international work-for-hire laws”, Sutherland Asbill & Brennan LLP, Vol September, pp. 1-14.
Leaffer, Marshall (2001). “The uncertain future of fair use in a global information marketplace”, Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 849-867.
Leaffer, Marshall A. (2005). Understanding Copyright Law, New York: LexisNexis.
Lee, Edward (2012). “Digital originality”, Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 919-957.
Lipszyc, Delia (n.d). Copyright vs. Author’s Right (Droit D'auteur) with Regard to Audiovisual Works, n.p: n.pn.