الگوی تلفیقی طراحی سؤال در کتاب‌های درسی دانشگاهی: مطالعة موردی کتاب‌های درسی گروه علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی «سمت»

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی درسی، پژوهشکدة تحقیق و توسعة علوم ‌انسانی «سمت»

چکیده

سؤال‌های مناسب‏ بر کسب دانش، پرورش ادراک و تحریک تفکر ارزیابانه و انتقادی تأثیر می‌گذارند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارائة الگویی تلفیقی برای طراحی سؤال کتاب‌های درسی دانشگاهی و مطالعة موردی کتاب‌های درسی گروه علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی سازمان «سمت» بر مبنای آن الگوست. برای این منظور، از روش پژوهش تحلیل محتوا و مطالعة موردی استفاده شد. ابتدا، منابع معتبر چاپی در حوزة طراحی سؤال کتاب‌های درسی دانشگاهی از نظر محتوا تحلیل و چارچوب الگوی نظری با رویکردی تلفیقی مشخص و سپس، برای بررسی روایی الگو، از هشت متخصصِ موضوع، به صورت هدفمند، نظرخواهی شد. در ادامه، 1323 سؤال در هشت کتاب از دو گروه علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی 1392-1397 سازمان «سمت» به صورت موردی براساس الگوی پژوهش تحلیل شد. نتایج آن نشان داد که الگوی مطلوب طراحی سؤال باید با توجه به سه بعد اصلی سلسله‌مراتب یادگیری، درگیری دانشجویان در درس و انواع تفکر هم‌گرا و واگرا طراحی شود. بر این اساس، الگوی نهایی شامل سه بُعد اصلی، سیزده سؤال اصلی و بیست و پنج سؤال فرعی بود. نتایج ارزیابی آن سؤال‌ها نشان داد که از 1323 سؤال، با 827 سؤال (51/62%) مهارت‌های سطوح پایین یادگیری و با 496 سؤال (49/37%) مهارت‌های سطوح بالای یادگیری تعیین شدند. 5/10 درصد از سؤال‌ها به پرورش تفکر واگرا و 5/89 درصد آن‌ها به پرورش تفکر هم‌گرا مربوط بود

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Integrative Pattern of Question Design in University Textbooks: A Case Study of the Questions in Education and Psychology Textbooks Published by SAMT

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Kiani 1
  • Mohammad Armand 2
1 Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Kashan
2 Associate Professor of Curriculum Studies, the Organization Researching and Composing University Textbooks in The Humanities (SAMT)
چکیده [English]

Well-designed questions have an integral role in acquiring knowledge, developing perceptions, and stimulating critical thinking. This study is to present an integrative model for designing questions in university textbooks and accordingly conduct a case study on questions in education and psychology textbooks published by SAMT Publications. To this end, content analysis and case study were used. In the first section, the related literature on question design were content analyzed, and the integrated approach was chosen as the theoretical model. Then, the validity of the model was checked by eight relevant experts. In the second part, 1323 questions in eight education and psychology textbooks published by SAMT Publication between 1392-1397 AH were analyzed based on the research model. The results showed that a desirable model for designing questions should be developed based on three main dimensions including learning hierarchy, student engagement in the course, and types of convergent and divergent thinking. The final model was composed of 3 main dimensions with 13 types of main questions and 25 sub-questions. The evaluation of a total of 8 textbooks and 1323 questions indicates that 827 questions (62.51%) and 496 questions (37.49%) assessed Lower and Higher Order Learning Skills, respectively. Moreover, the design of the questions in these textbooks was mainly focused on content, and no attention was paid to fundamental, emotional, and engaging questions. Finally, only 10.5% of the questions relate to the development of divergent thinking, while 89.5% of them relates to interrelated questions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • University textbook
  • question design
  • learning hierarchy
  • convergent thinking
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